Saturday, July 13, 2024

Immersive Technology Revolutionizes Nursing Education: A Systematic Review

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The integration of immersive technology into nursing education has gained remarkable traction, offering innovative solutions to overcome resource constraints and ensure safe clinical practice environments. This systematic review meticulously evaluates the effectiveness of immersive technologies, such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), in comparison to traditional teaching methods for undergraduate nursing students.

Comprehensive Analysis of Immersive Technology-Based Education

A thorough literature search was conducted across four databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Web of Science, culminating on January 19, 2023. The review included studies involving undergraduate nursing students, published in Korean or English, and featuring randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomized studies. The interventions examined encompassed VR, AR, mixed reality (MR), and extended reality (XR). Quality assessments were performed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (RoB 2) for RCTs and the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies (RoBANS).

Evaluating Effectiveness and Outcomes

The review incorporated 23 studies with participant numbers ranging from 33 to 289. Among these, 19 studies employed VR for various scenarios, including disaster training and resuscitation, while four studies used AR technologies. Fifteen studies incorporated virtual patients in their training modules. The outcomes were categorized based on the New World Kirkpatrick Model (NWKM), with primary variables classified into Level 1 (usability and satisfaction), Level 2 (knowledge, motivation, confidence, performance, attitude, and self-efficacy), and Level 3 (clinical reasoning). Notably, Level 4 outcomes were absent in the selected studies.

Meta-analysis results highlighted the superiority of immersive technology-based education over traditional methods regarding knowledge enhancement (SMD=0.59, 95% CI=0.28-0.90, P<.001, I2=49%). Additionally, significant improvements were observed in confidence (SMD=0.70, 95% CI=0.05-1.35, P=.03, I2=82%) and self-efficacy (SMD=0.86, 95% CI=0.42-1.30; P<.001, I2=63%).

The findings underscore the importance of market access in the realm of nursing education. Ensuring broad access to immersive technologies can significantly enhance the learning experiences and outcomes for nursing students, thereby preparing a more competent workforce.

Key Inferences

  • Immersive technology-based education significantly boosts knowledge retention compared to traditional methods.
  • Enhanced confidence and self-efficacy among nursing students are evident with the use of VR and AR technologies.
  • Market access to these advanced educational tools can bridge the gap in clinical training resources.

Ultimately, the systematic review confirms the efficacy of immersive technologies in nursing education, though methodological heterogeneity persists. It is recommended that long-term cohort studies be conducted to evaluate the NWKM Level 4 outcomes, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of these educational interventions.

Original Article: J Med Internet Res. 2024 Jul 8. doi: 10.2196/57566. Online ahead of print.

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