Monday, July 15, 2024

Understanding the Costs of Hospital-Onset Infections (HOIs)

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The majority of recent estimates on the direct medical cost attributable to hospital-onset infections (HOIs) have focused on device- or procedure-associated HOIs. However, the costs associated with nondevice- and nonprocedure-related HOIs have not been extensively studied. To address this gap, we developed simulation models to estimate the attributable costs for 16 HOIs and calculated the total direct medical costs, including nondevice-related hospital-onset infections, in the USA for 2011 and 2015.

The objective was to create simulation models of the attributable cost for various HOIs and to estimate the total direct medical cost, including nondevice-related hospital-onset infections. We used total discharge costs associated with HOI-related hospitalizations from the National Inpatient Sample and applied an analogy costing methodology to develop these models. The mean attributable cost estimate from the simulation analysis was then multiplied by previously published estimates of the number of HOIs for 2011 and 2015 to generate national estimates of direct medical costs.

The simulation models were designed to accurately reflect the economic burden of HOIs by incorporating various cost factors. We adjusted all estimates to 2017 US dollars to ensure consistency and comparability. This comprehensive approach provided a clearer picture of the financial impact of both device-related and nondevice-related hospital-onset infections on the healthcare system.

Hospital-Onset Infections Results and Analysis

Our analysis revealed that the attributable cost estimates for select nondevice-related infections ranged from $7,661 for ear, eye, nose, throat, and mouth (EENTM) infections to $27,709 for cardiovascular system infections in 2011. For 2016 (based on 2015 incidence data), the costs ranged from $8,394 for EENTM infections to $26,445 for central nervous system infections. These figures highlight the significant financial burden that nondevice-related HOIs impose on the healthcare system.

In terms of national direct medical costs, HOIs accounted for $14.6 billion in 2011 and $12.1 billion in 2016. Notably, nondevice- and nonprocedure-associated HOIs comprised approximately 26−28% of the total HOI costs. This substantial percentage underscores the importance of addressing all types of hospital-onset infections, not just those related to medical devices or procedures.

Hospital-Onset Infections

Implications and Conclusion

Our findings suggest that nondevice- and nonprocedure-related HOIs result in considerable costs to the healthcare system. These infections represent a significant portion of the overall economic burden of HOIs, emphasizing the need for comprehensive infection prevention and control strategies. By expanding the focus beyond device- and procedure-associated infections, healthcare providers and policymakers can develop more effective approaches to reduce the incidence and associated costs of all hospital-onset infections.

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Resource: Springer Link, July 05, 2024

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